Stephen Schneider


Professor Email:

Phone: 902-420-5872



Ph.D., Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, 1997
M.Sc., International Economic Development, University of Pennsylvania, 1993
B.A., Political Science, Carleton University, 1990


  Areas of Interest

Organized crime, crime prevention, corporate crime, community development, developmental criminology, policing and law enforcement


Courses Taught

CRIM 2304: Canadian Criminal Justice

CRIM 3526: Organized Crime

CRIM 3610: Practicum in Social Development

CRIM 4610: Practicum in Community Development 

CRIM 4525: Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice


Current and Recent Projects

Town of Wolfville Community Safety Office Feasibility Study - The goal of this project is to explore the creation of a Community Safety Office (CSO) for the Town of Wolfville that would include the hiring of a Community Safety Coordinator (CSC). The specific objectives of this project are twofold. First, plan for the creation of a pilot CSO through a report that will articulate the vision, mandate, goals, principles, strategies, programs, and services of the proposed office. The report will also provide a preliminary estimate of the required resources, a description of the CSC position, and a framework to monitor and assess this pilot project. The second goal is to assess the feasibility of a CSO in terms of its ability to mobilize local resources and engage the collaboration of key stakeholders (which is essential to the preventative, problem-solving, team-oriented model that is envisioned for this CSO).  

An Ontology of Organized Crime: Identifying Attributes through a Comprehensive
Typology and Enforcement Implications -
For years, there has been a quixotic quest to define, describe, and conceptualize organized crime. Despite more than 150 definitions, and at least a dozen conceptual models, none have adequately captured this criminal phenomenon. To better understand organized crime in all its complexity and diversity, this book comprehensively identifies, describes, critically analyzes, labels, and categorizes its many attributes. Based upon a review of the literature, a holistic typology of organized crime is constructed that comprises 27 attributes divided into five thematic categories: associational (the relationship among the offenders that leads to some discernible structure), commercial (revenue-generating crimes), operational (support functions and expenditures), institutional (factors that sustain a criminal group and activities over time), and cultural/behavioral (the norms, values, and codes of organized crime and how it affects the actions of offenders). The typology is also envisioned as a foundation for a conceptual model amenable to empirical testing and as an applied framework for organized crime control purposes.

The 'Ndrangheta in Canada: Outpost or Transnational Power Centre? (Conference presentation, book, and documentary film)The 'Ndrangheta is considered one of the most widespread criminal organizations in Italy, Europe, and the world. 'Ndrangheta cells with direct ties to Calabria have had a presence in Canada since the 1950s (with the discovery of the so-called "Siderno Group"). Since then, the ’Ndrangheta had risen to a “Tier 1” national threat, based on RCMP assessments. Italian law enforcement officials estimate there are least seven cells in Ontario and have accused the province of becoming an international “penal colony” for ’Ndrangheta members who had fled Italy for the sanctity of Canada. This research examines the ’Ndrangheta as a transnational mafia-style criminal organization while exploring accusations that its international power centre has shifted from Calabria to Canada.  

The SMUPALS ProgramPALS is a social developmental program for children (ages 6 to 12) who are at-risk due to academic failure. The program, which began in May of 2006 is meant to address – in a multi-component, complementary and integrated fashion – factors that put disadvantaged children at risk by enhancing their personal “resilience.” The acronym PALS stands for Positive Role Models and Mentors, Academic Tutoring, Leisure and Physical Activities, and Social and Life Skills Development. PALS was funded through a $400,000 grant from the National Crime Prevention Centre. Much of the tutoring and mentoring is carried out by SMU students. It has currently been adapted to First Nation's children and is being piloted with the Glooscap First Nation in Nova Scotia.

Saint Mary's University Academic Resilience Team (SMART) - This pilot project is a quasi-experiment built on principles of crime prevention through social development and recidivism prevention. The project helps disadvantaged and marginalized youth achieve academic success, which includes completing high school and successfully enrolling at Saint Mary's University or another post-secondary institution. The evidence-based intervention principles and strategies being used in this project include the following:

  • tutoring, mentoring, and advocacy by trained SMU students,
  • development of an academic success plan for the youth,
  • psycho-educational and aptitude assessments of the youth, to identify cognitive and intellectual strengths and weaknesses,
  • incentives, including immediate material incentives and long-term financial support (e.g., tuition reduction, bursaries, etc.),
  • support for the youth as they transition from high school or the criminal justice system to their post-secondary education, and
  • therapeutic treatment (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy) to address any psychological, mental health, cognitive or social competency risk factors.

Money Laundering in British Columbia: A Review of the Literature  - This report, submitted to the Cullen Commission of Inquiry into money laundering in British Columbia, provides a review of literature that is concerned with describing and analyzing the nature and characteristics of money laundering (ML) with emphasis on Canada and British Columbia. This includes literature that provides a conceptual and theoretical overview of ML, its relationship with profit-oriented organized crime and criminal groups, a breakdown of ML methods and techniques, the commercial and financial sectors and professionals used to launder money, how the informal (underground) economy is used, as well as the effects that ML may have on organized crime, the economy, and society. These issue areas are applied to Canada and B.C. specifically and include a discussion of the so-called “Vancouver Model,” in addition to an analysis of the factors that put the country, the province, and the Lower Mainland at risk of ML.

Organized Crime and Internal Conspiracies at Canadian Marine Ports - This research, funded by the federal Departments of Public Safety and Justice, examines the vulnerability of Canadian commercial container ports to organized crime groups and activities. The different studies involved in the research included a focus on the role of internal conspiracies (the corruption of dockworkers and/or the placement of members or associates of criminal groups on the docks) to facilitate smuggling and other criminal activities at marine container ports. Research methods include a literature review, interviews, review of criminal intelligence reports, and an analysis of police case files and court proceedings' transcripts. This research has been applied to expert witness work I have conducted for the Department of Justice as part of a series of court cases.



2022 - Canadian Organized Crime. 2nd Edition, Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press 

2020 - Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice. 2nd Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

2016 - Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada. 2nd Edition. Toronto: HarperCollins.

2007 - Money Laundering in Canada: Chasing Dirty and Dangerous and Dollars. (co-authored with Margaret Beare). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

2007 - Refocusing Crime Prevention: Collective Action and the Quest for Community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (peer-reviewed).


Books (Editor)

2024 - Murray, Tonita; Elizabeth Kirley & Stephen Schneider (Eds). Big Policing and Big Crime: All About Big Money? Toronto: University of Toronto Press



2024 - “Big banks, big money and big crimes in the era of ‘Too big to fail’,” in Tonita Murray, Elizabeth Kirley & Stephen Schneider (Eds). Big Policing and Big Crime: All About Big Money? University of Toronto Press.

2023 - "From opium to fentanyl: A historical and contemporary overview of drug smuggling into Canada," In Robert Currie (Ed.) Transnational and Cross-Border Criminal Law: Canadian Perspectives, Irwin Law.

2023 - “Task specialization in organized crime groups: Money laundering and the Montreal Mafia,” in Christian Leuprecht & Art Cockfield (Eds). Dirty Money: Financial Crime in Canada. McGill-Queen’s University Press. 

2022 - OP-ED: “Does 'thin blue line' patch signify thinly veiled bigotry?” Saltwire Network, Oct. 14, 2022.

2022 - Report doubles down on enforcement measures that have failed to curb money laundering (Op-Ed), Vancouver Sun, July 12.

2022 - “Crime Prevention,” Ch. 2 in Karla O’Regan & Susan Reid (Eds.), Thinking About Criminal Justice in Canada, 3rd Ed., Emond Montgomery Publications.

2020 - OP-ED: It’s time to rethink how we deal with crime, Saltwire Network, July 20

2020 - OP-ED: “Ignoring plight of children in poverty ‘heartless, bad governance,’” Valley Journal-Advertiser, February 11

2019 - “Organized crime” Ch. 16 in Rick Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian Perspective. 8th Edition, Nelson Canada.

2018 -  “Evidence-based community practice and university Involvement,” Justice Report, Canadian Criminal Justice Association, Issue 32.4, pp. 23-27.

2015 - “Deferred prosecution won’t put a dent in corporate crime.” Globe and Mail, Report on Business (Commentary), June 2,

2013 - “Violence, organized crime, and illicit markets: A Canadian case study.” Sociology: Problems and Practices. No. 71, January/April.

2010 - “Our healthiest industry? Organized crime in Canada.” Literary Review of Canada. January/February, pp. 20-22

2008 - Obstacles to an integrated, joint forces approach to organized crime enforcement: A Canadian case study (co-authored with Christine Hurst), Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31 (3), 359-379.

2006 - “Privatising economic crime enforcement: Exploring the role of private sector investigative agencies in combating money laundering.” Policing and Society. 16(3), 285-313.

2006 - “Testing the limits of solicitor-client privilege: Lawyers, money laundering, and suspicious transaction reporting.” Journal of Money Laundering Control. 10(1), 27-47.

2005 - “Money Laundering Through Securities - An Analysis of Canadian Police Cases.” Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law. Vol. IV, June, 169-184.

2005 - “Organized and financial crimes in the Canadian real estate market.” Journal of Property Research. 21(2), 1-20.

2004 - “Money laundering in Canada: A quantitative analysis of RCMP cases.” Journal of Financial Crime. 11(3) January, 282-291.

2003 - “The incorporation and operation of criminally-controlled companies in Canada.” Journal of Money Laundering Control. 7(2) November, 126-138.

2003 - “Organized crime.” Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Karen Christensen and David Levinson (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 1041-1045

2003 - “Organized crime.” pp. 1041-1045 in Karen Christensen and David Levinson (eds.). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

2002 - “Organized crime - Global.” Encyclopedia of Crime & Punishment. David Levinson (Ed.)Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 1112-1118 

2002 - “Addressing staff safety at high-risk social assistance offices.” Security Journal. 15(1), 63-81.

2001 - “Alternative approaches to combating organized crime: A conceptual framework and empirical analysis.” International Journal of Comparative Criminology. 1(2), 144-179.

2000 - “Contraband smuggling and its enforcement in Canada: An evaluation of the Canadian Anti-Smuggling Initiative.” Trends in Organized Crime.  6(2), 3-31.

2000 - “Organizational obstacles to participation in community crime prevention programs: The case of Mount Pleasant (Vancouver, Canada).” International Criminal Justice Review.   Vol. 10, 32-53.

2000 - “Transnational organized crime and the Canadian business community.” Canadian International Lawyer. 4(2): 95-100.

2000 - “Dirty money: How new money laundering legislation places an increased onus on insurance companies.” Canadian Insurance.   August: 24-27.

1999 - “Barriers to communication between police and socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods: A critical theory of community policing.” Crime, Law and Social Change. 30(4), 347-377.

1999 - “Maximizing staff safety. Learning lessons after a violent outburst at a government social services office.” Canadian Security. August/September: 30-34

1998 - “Combating organized crime in (and by) the private sector: A normative role for Canada's forensic investigative firms.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 14(4), 351-367.

1995 - “The criminal intelligence function: Toward a comprehensive and normative model.” Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst Digest. 9(2): 1-26.


Government-Commissioned Studies

2020 - Money Laundering in British Columbia: A Review of the Literature. Report submitted to the Cullen Commission of Inquiry into money laundering in British Columbia.  

2014 - Addressing Youth Crime and Violence in the HRM: Research Findings and Recommendations. Report submitted to the Mayor and Council of the Halifax Regional Municipality (as part of the Mayor’s Roundtable on Violence).

2011 - A Study of the Vulnerability of Marine Ports to Organized Crime. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada (on behalf of Presidia Security Consulting Inc.). 

2010 - A Problem-Oriented Approach To Securities Fraud. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada. (Lead Author: Rick Linden).

2009 - Developing and Applying An Organized Crime Harm Index: A Scoping And Feasibility Study. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada. 

2004 - Money laundering in Canada: An Analysis of RCMP Case Files. Toronto: Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, York University.  

2002 - Predicting Crime: A Review of the Research. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.  

2000 - Money Laundering in Canada: A Survey of Financial Service Providers. Toronto: KPMG Investigation and Security Inc. 

2000 - Alternative Approaches to Combating Transnational Crime (Second author: Margaret Beare). Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada. 

1996 - The Theory and Practice of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: A Literature Review (co-authored with Penny Pearcey). Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.

1993 - Analyzing Proceeds of Crime Enforcement in Canada: Bill C-61 and Beyond. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.

1990 - Tracing of Illicit Funds: Money Laundering in Canada (Lead author: Margaret Beare). Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.


Conference & Workshop Presentations

“A Critical Analysis of the Criminal Justice System: A Crime Prevention Perspective.” Pierre Genest Lecture, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Sept. 21, 2022.

“The ‘Ndrangheta in Canada: Outpost or Transnational Power Centre?” 4th General Conference on Organised Crime European Consortium for Political Research, Pisa Italy, July 4 to 6, 2022.

Webinar Panel Participant, "Money Laundering in Canada," Dirty Money in Canadian Housing, Canadian Housing Evidence Collaborative and the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, February 22, 2022.  

Keynote Speaker, "Illicit Financial Facilitators: Professional Money Launderers in Canada." Money Laundering in Canada, About Business Crime Solutions, Virtual Conference, October 25, 2021. 

Moderator, “Human trafficking in Atlantic Canada: Enforcement and Prevention,” Saint Mary' University Entrepreneurial Centre, Halifax, February 18, 2021

Panelist, “Defending Canada,” Canadian International Council and Global Canada, Human Security in an Age of New Global Order, November 25, 2020

“Organized crime, smuggling and internal conspiracies at commercial marine ports in Canada: The case of the Hells Angels,” Nova Scotia Criminal Intelligence Service Canada Conference on Outlaw Motorcycles Gang, Halifax, Nova Scotia, May 23, 2019.

“Theorizing about Organized Crime: A Comprehensive and Flexible Conceptual Model of a Criminal Organization,” American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov. 14 to 18, 2018.  

"It Takes a Village to Educate a Student: Tutoring and Mentoring At-risk Youth through experiential Course Designs," Atlantic Universities' Teaching Showcase, Dalhousie University Agricultural Campus, Truro, Nova Scotia, Oct. 20, 2018. 

"The SMART Project: Addressing Academic Failure as a Criminogenic Risk Factor," 8th National Conference on Critical Perspectives: Criminology and Social Justice, Harm and Harm Reduction in the Criminal Justice System, June 21 & 22, 2018, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

"Transnational organized crime and Canada: A historical and contemporary perspective," Canadian International Council, Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 21, 2017.

“Organized crime and money laundering in Canada: Recent trends and developments,” Money Laundering and Organized Crime: Protecting Business, About Business Crime Solutions, Toronto, Ontario, October 5 to 7, 2016.

“Unethical and Unlawful Behaviour by Pathological Financial Institutions: Implications for Human Rights and Social Justice, Fifth National Conference Critical Perspectives: Criminology and Social Justice, University of Ottawa, May 28-29, 2015. 

“Characteristics of a Criminal Organization,” Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Expert Witness Training Workshop, Ontario Provincial Police/Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Oct. 10, 2012

“‘Ndrangheta: A Historical Analysis and Contemporary Threat Assessment,” International Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts Annual Training Conference, San Diego, California, April 30-May 4, 2012

“History of Organized Crime in Canada: Parallels with the Present & Lessons Learned,” Organized Crime Workshop, Conference Board of Canada, Centre for National Security, Ottawa, Ontario, February 16, 2012

“Crime Prevention through Social Development,” Best Practices to Combat Organized Crime Research Workshop, Public Safety Canada, Sheraton Hotel, Ottawa, Ontario, November 17-18, 2009. 



News Media Coverage

CBC News, May 21, 2024, Officials investigate TD Bank drug money laundering allegations

Canadian Press, April 8, 2024, Nova Scotia town seeking novel approach to dealing with unruly university students

Global News, Dec. 29, 2023,‘Dirty Money’: New book explores how financial crime is corroding Canada

Washington Post, Dec. 24 2023, Fentanyl super labs in Canada pose new threat for U.S. opioid epidemic 

Global News, Sep. 29, 2023, Nova Scotia to conduct comprehensive review of policing in the province 

CBC, Aug. 25 2023, Allegiances within Calgary organized crime remain fluid, posing challenges for investigators, May 21, 2023, Wolfville moves forward with feasibility study for community safety office

Global News, April 21, 2023, Was Pearson heist an ‘inside job?’ Questions swirl with $20M in gold, goods stolen

Thinking out Loud with Sheldon MacLeod podcast, Oct. 17, 2022, "Crumbling confidence in policing"

CBC Information Morning (Nova Scotia), Oct. 12, 2022, "Criminologist's take on photo of RCMP donating money to Freedom Fighters"

Annapolis Valley Register, Oct. 11, 2022, "'An amicable interaction': Freedom Fighters group said there was no threat of violence at Nictaux, N.S., fundraiser"

CBC News, Oct. 10, 2022, N.S. RCMP say officers paid fee, took photo with 'freedom fighters' as de-escalation tactics, May 3, 2022, Despite recent incidents, violent crime trending down in Halifax

CBC News, Jan. 31, 2022,  N.S. man who struggled with mental health says he needed something other than jail

CBC News, Oct. 7, 2021, Boats, cars, couriers: Drugs arrive on Cape Breton in multiple ways, police say

CBC News, May 26, 2020, Vancouver model for money laundering unprecedented in Canada, B.C. inquiry hears

Globe and Mail, May 25, 2020, Online games could be source of money laundering, B.C. public inquiry hears

Globe and Mail, May 25, 2020, B.C.’s money laundering fuelled by offshore and drug money, inquiry hears

Global News, Mat 25, 2020, Money laundering in Vancouver appears to be ‘cottage industry,’ inquiry hears

Acadie Nouvelle, Nov. 25, 2019, Les Maritimes, un terreau fertile pour le trafic de drogue 

Kings County Advertiser/Register,  Oct. 24, 2019, Green, NDP parties make significant inroads with Kings-Hants voters

Kings County Advertiser/Register, Oct. 11, 2019, Kings-Hants candidates appeal to crowd at packed forum in Greenwich 

Hants Journal, August 14, 2019, Federal election candidates answer environment questions for Extinction Rebellion, the public at Wolfville forum 

CBC News,  August 24, 2019, The criminal attraction between smugglers, small boats and Nova Scotia's shoreline 

Kings County Advertiser/Register, March 9, 2019, Schneider acclaimed as Kings-Hants NDP candidate following Wolfville nomination meeting

Richmond News, March 5, 2019, B.C., feds struggle to close money laundering loophole 

Hants Journal, March 1, 2019, Sole declared Kings-Hants NDP nomination contestant wants to address local, national issues 

Kings County Advertiser/Register, Feb. 28, 2019, Taken away: Kings RCMP working to educate public about warning signs of human trafficking 

Chronicle-Herald, Feb. 15, 2019, Saint Mary’s professor seeks NDP nomination in Kings-Hants 

Kings County Advertiser/Register, Feb. 15, 2019, Candidate nomination meeting set for Kings-Hants NDP 

Radio-Canada, Jan. 1 2019, Les Hells Angels tentent de se réinstaller dans les provinces de l'Atlantique

Forbes, Nov. 5 2018, Does Canada's cannabis industry have mafia ties? 

Canadian Press, Dec. 20, 2018, Hells Angels re-establish East Coast presence: 'They have a good footprint 

Global News, Oct. 31, 2018, Cannabis black market likely to remain until supply issues resolved: N.S. researcher (includes video) 

Kings County Advertiser/Register, Dec. 10, 2017, Bringing back tradition: a look at three historic Wolfville homes decked out for Christmas

Kings County Advertiser/Register, May 24  2017, Kings South candidates forum stimulates discussion on health, education, roads 

Global News, May 1, 2017, Nova Scotia Election: Kings South candidates 

CBC News, Jan. 27, 2017, P.E.I. outlaw gang legislation may not hold up, says criminologist 

CBC News, Dec. 13, 2016, Would you want to live next to an outlaw biker gang? 

CBC News, Aug. 11, 2017, Police watching for expansion of motorcycle gangs in New Brunswick 

CBC News, April 25, 2016, Shooting deaths, violent acts have systemic causes, says Halifax pastor 

Globe and Mail, June 2, 2015, Deferred prosecution won't put a dent in corporate crime

Contact us

Faculty of Arts
Department of Criminology
McNally South 424
Mailing address:
923 Robie Street