Professor Email: email@example.com
Ph.D., Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, 1997
M.Sc., International Economic Development, University of Pennsylvania, 1993
B.A., Political Science, Carleton University, 1990
Areas of Interest
Organized crime, crime prevention, community development, developmental criminology, policing and law enforcement
CRIM 2304: Canadian Criminal Justice
CRIM 3526: Organized Crime
CRIM 3610: Practicum in Social Development
CRIM 4610: Practicum in Community Development
CRIM 4525: Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice
Current and Recent Projects
“A Critical Analysis of the Criminal Justice System: A Crime Prevention Perspective.” Pierre Genest Lecture, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Sept. 21, 2022
The 'Ndrangheta in Canada: Outpost or Transnational Power Centre? (Conference presentation, book, and documentary film) - The 'Ndrangheta is considered one of the most widespread criminal organizations in Italy, Europe, and the world. 'Ndrangheta cells with direct ties to Calabria have had a presence in Canada since the 1950s (with the discovery of the so-called "Siderno Group"). Since then, the ’Ndrangheta had risen to a “Tier 1” national threat, based on RCMP assessments. Italian law enforcement officials estimate there are least seven cells in Ontario and have accused the province of becoming an international “penal colony” for ’Ndrangheta members who had fled Italy for the sanctity of Canada. This research examines the ’Ndrangheta as a transnational mafia-style criminal organization while exploring accusations that its international power centre has shifted from Calabria to Canada.
The SMUPALS Program - PALS is a social developmental program for children (ages 6 to 12) who are at-risk due to academic failure. The program, which began in May of 2006 is meant to address – in a multi-component, complementary and integrated fashion – factors that put disadvantaged children at risk by enhancing their personal “resilience.” The acronym PALS stands for Positive Role Models and Mentors, Academic Tutoring, Leisure and Physical Activities, and Social and Life Skills Development. PALS was funded through a $400,000 grant from the National Crime Prevention Centre. Much of the tutoring and mentoring is carried out by SMU students. It has currently been adapted to First Nation's children and is being piloted with the Glooscap First Nation in Nova Scotia.
Saint Mary's University Academic Resilience Team (SMART) - This pilot project is a quasi-experiment built on principles of crime prevention through social development and recidivism prevention. The project helps disadvantaged and marginalized youth achieve academic success, which includes completing high school and successfully enrolling at Saint Mary's University or another post-secondary institution. The evidence-based intervention principles and strategies being used in this project include the following:
- tutoring, mentoring, and advocacy by trained SMU students,
- development of an academic success plan for the youth,
- psycho-educational and aptitude assessments of the youth, to identify cognitive and intellectual strengths and weaknesses,
- incentives, including immediate material incentives and long-term financial support (e.g., tuition reduction, bursaries, etc.),
- support for the youth as they transition from high school or the criminal justice system to their post-secondary education, and
- therapeutic treatment (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy) to address any psychological, mental health, cognitive or social competency risk factors.
Money Laundering in British Columbia: A Review of the Literature - This report, submitted to the Cullen Commission of Inquiry into money laundering in British Columbia, provides a review of literature that is concerned with describing and analyzing the nature and characteristics of money laundering (ML) with emphasis on Canada and British Columbia. This includes literature that provides a conceptual and theoretical overview of ML, its relationship with profit-oriented organized crime and criminal groups, a breakdown of ML methods and techniques, the commercial and financial sectors and professionals used to launder money, how the informal (underground) economy is used, as well as the effects that ML may have on organized crime, the economy, and society. These issue areas are applied to Canada and B.C. specifically and include a discussion of the so-called “Vancouver Model,” in addition to an analysis of the factors that put the country, the province, and the Lower Mainland at risk of ML.
Organized Crime and Internal Conspiracies at Canadian Marine Ports - This research, funded by the federal Departments of Public Safety and Justice, examines the vulnerability of Canadian commercial container ports to organized crime groups and activities. The different studies involved in the research included a focus on the role of internal conspiracies (the corruption of dockworkers and/or the placement of members or associates of criminal groups on the docks) to facilitate smuggling and other criminal activities at marine container ports. Research methods include a literature review, interviews, review of criminal intelligence reports, and an analysis of police case files and court proceedings' transcripts. This research has been applied to expert witness work I have conducted for the Department of Justice as part of a series of court cases.
See also: Google Scholar
2022 - Canadian Organized Crime. 2nd Edition, Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press
2016 - Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada. 2nd Edition. Toronto: HarperCollins.
2015 - Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice. 2nd Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
2007 - Money Laundering in Canada: Chasing Dirty and Dangerous and Dollars. (co-authored with Margaret Beare). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
2007 - Refocusing Crime Prevention: Collective Action and the Quest for Community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (peer-reviewed).
2022 - Murray, Tonita; Elizabeth Kirley & Stephen Schneider (Eds). Big Policing and Big Crime: All About Big Money? Toronto: University of Toronto Press
2022 - "From opium to fentanyl: A historical and contemporary overview of drug smuggling into Canada," In Robert Currie (Ed.) Transnational and Cross-Border Criminal Law: Canadian Perspectives, Irwin Law.
2022 - “Task specialization in organized crime groups: Money laundering and the Montreal Mafia,” in Christian Leuprecht & Art Cockfield (Eds). Canada: The State of the Federation 2020. Financial Crime. McGill-Queen’s University Press.
2022 - “Big banks, big money and big crimes in the era of ‘Too big to fail’,” in Tonita Murray, Elizabeth Kirley & Stephen Schneider (Eds). Big Policing and Big Crime: All About Big Money? University of Toronto Press.
2022 - “Crime Prevention,” Ch. 2 in Karla O’Regan & Susan Reid (Eds.), Thinking About Criminal Justice in Canada, 3rd Ed., Edmond Montgomery Publications.
2020 - OP-ED: It’s time to rethink how we deal with crime, Saltwire Network, July 20
2019 - “Organized crime” Ch. 16 in Rick Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian Perspective. 8th Edition, Nelson Canada.
2018 - “Evidence-based community practice and university Involvement,” Justice Report, Canadian Criminal Justice Association, Issue 32.4, pp. 23-27.
2015 - “Deferred prosecution won’t put a dent in corporate crime.” Globe and Mail, Report on Business (Commentary), June 2,
2013 - “Violence, organized crime, and illicit markets: A Canadian case study.” Sociology: Problems and Practices. No. 71, January/April.
2010 - “Our healthiest industry? Organized crime in Canada.” Literary Review of Canada. January/February, pp. 20-22
2008 - Obstacles to an integrated, joint forces approach to organized crime enforcement: A Canadian case study (co-authored with Christine Hurst), Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31 (3), 359-379.
2006 - “Privatising economic crime enforcement: Exploring the role of private sector investigative agencies in combating money laundering.” Policing and Society. 16(3), 285-313.
2006 - “Testing the limits of solicitor-client privilege: Lawyers, money laundering, and suspicious transaction reporting.” Journal of Money Laundering Control. 10(1), 27-47.
2005 - “Money Laundering Through Securities - An Analysis of Canadian Police Cases.” Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law. Vol. IV, June, 169-184.
2005 - “Organized and financial crimes in the Canadian real estate market.” Journal of Property Research. 21(2), 1-20.
2004 - “Money laundering in Canada: A quantitative analysis of RCMP cases.” Journal of Financial Crime. 11(3) January, 282-291.
2003 - “The incorporation and operation of criminally-controlled companies in Canada.” Journal of Money Laundering Control. 7(2) November, 126-138.
2003 - “Organized crime.” Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Karen Christensen and David Levinson (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 1041-1045
2003 - “Organized crime.” pp. 1041-1045 in Karen Christensen and David Levinson (eds.). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
2002 - “Organized crime - Global.” Encyclopedia of Crime & Punishment. David Levinson (Ed.)Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 1112-1118
2002 - “Addressing staff safety at high-risk social assistance offices.” Security Journal. 15(1), 63-81.
2001 - “Alternative approaches to combating organized crime: A conceptual framework and empirical analysis.” International Journal of Comparative Criminology. 1(2), 144-179.
2000 - “Contraband smuggling and its enforcement in Canada: An evaluation of the Canadian Anti-Smuggling Initiative.” Trends in Organized Crime. 6(2), 3-31.
2000 - “Organizational obstacles to participation in community crime prevention programs: The case of Mount Pleasant (Vancouver, Canada).” International Criminal Justice Review. Vol. 10, 32-53.
2000 - “Transnational organized crime and the Canadian business community.” Canadian International Lawyer. 4(2): 95-100.
2000 - “Dirty money: How new money laundering legislation places an increased onus on insurance companies.” Canadian Insurance. August: 24-27.
1999 - “Barriers to communication between police and socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods: A critical theory of community policing.” Crime, Law and Social Change. 30(4), 347-377.
1999 - “Maximizing staff safety. Learning lessons after a violent outburst at a government social services office.” Canadian Security. August/September: 30-34
1998 - “Combating organized crime in (and by) the private sector: A normative role for Canada's forensic investigative firms.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 14(4), 351-367.
1995 - “The criminal intelligence function: Toward a comprehensive and normative model.” Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst Digest. 9(2): 1-26.
2014 - Addressing Youth Crime and Violence in the HRM: Research Findings and Recommendations. Report submitted to the Mayor and Council of the Halifax Regional Municipality (as part of the Mayor’s Roundtable on Violence).
2011 - A Study of the Vulnerability of Marine Ports to Organized Crime. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada (on behalf of Presidia Security Consulting Inc.).
2010 - A Problem-Oriented Approach To Securities Fraud. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada. (Lead Author: Rick Linden).
2009 - Developing and Applying An Organized Crime Harm Index: A Scoping And Feasibility Study. Report submitted to Public Safety Canada.
2004 - Money laundering in Canada: An Analysis of RCMP Case Files. Toronto: Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, York University.
2002 - Predicting Crime: A Review of the Research. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.
2000 - Money Laundering in Canada: A Survey of Financial Service Providers. Toronto: KPMG Investigation and Security Inc.
2000 - Alternative Approaches to Combating Transnational Crime (Second author: Margaret Beare). Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
1996 - The Theory and Practice of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: A Literature Review (co-authored with Penny Pearcey). Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.
1993 - Analyzing Proceeds of Crime Enforcement in Canada: Bill C-61 and Beyond. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
1990 - Tracing of Illicit Funds: Money Laundering in Canada (Lead author: Margaret Beare). Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
Conference & Workshop Presentations
“The ‘Ndrangheta in Canada: Outpost or Transnational Power Centre?” 4th General Conference on Organised Crime European Consortium for Political Research, Pisa Italy, July 4 to 6, 2022.
Webinar Panel Participant, "Money Laundering in Canada," Dirty Money in Canadian Housing, Canadian Housing Evidence Collaborative and the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, February 22, 2022
Keynote Speaker, "Illicit Financial Facilitators: Professional Money Launderers in Canada." Money Laundering in Canada, About Business Crime Solutions, Virtual Conference, October 25, 2021.
Moderator, “Human trafficking in Atlantic Canada: Enforcement and Prevention,” Saint Mary' University Entrepreneurial Centre, Halifax, February 18, 2021
Panelist, “Defending Canada,” Canadian International Council and Global Canada, Human Security in an Age of New Global Order, November 25, 2020
“Organized crime, smuggling and internal conspiracies at commercial marine ports in Canada: The case of the Hells Angels,” Nova Scotia Criminal Intelligence Service Canada Conference on Outlaw Motorcycles Gang, Halifax, Nova Scotia, May 23, 2019.
“Theorizing about Organized Crime: A Comprehensive and Flexible Conceptual Model of a Criminal Organization,” American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov. 14 to 18, 2018.
"It Takes a Village to Educate a Student: Tutoring and Mentoring At-risk Youth through experiential Course Designs," Atlantic Universities' Teaching Showcase, Dalhousie University Agricultural Campus, Truro, Nova Scotia, Oct. 20, 2018.
"The SMART Project: Addressing Academic Failure as a Criminogenic Risk Factor," 8th National Conference on Critical Perspectives: Criminology and Social Justice, Harm and Harm Reduction in the Criminal Justice System, June 21 & 22, 2018, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
"Transnational organized crime and Canada: A historical and contemporary perspective," Canadian International Council, Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 21, 2017.
“Organized crime and money laundering in Canada: Recent trends and developments,” Money Laundering and Organized Crime: Protecting Business, About Business Crime Solutions, Toronto, Ontario, October 5 to 7, 2016.
“Unethical and Unlawful Behaviour by Pathological Financial Institutions: Implications for Human Rights and Social Justice, Fifth National Conference Critical Perspectives: Criminology and Social Justice, University of Ottawa, May 28-29, 2015.
“Characteristics of a Criminal Organization,” Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Expert Witness Training Workshop, Ontario Provincial Police/Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Oct. 10, 2012
“‘Ndrangheta: A Historical Analysis and Contemporary Threat Assessment,” International Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts Annual Training Conference, San Diego, California, April 30-May 4, 2012
“History of Organized Crime in Canada: Parallels with the Present & Lessons Learned,” Organized Crime Workshop, Conference Board of Canada, Centre for National Security, Ottawa, Ontario, February 16, 2012
“Crime Prevention through Social Development,” Best Practices to Combat Organized Crime Research Workshop, Public Safety Canada, Sheraton Hotel, Ottawa, Ontario, November 17-18, 2009.
News Media Coverage (Online)