Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

Geography (GEOG)

General Information

Geography is the study of the Earth’s surface, and of the spatial distribution and patterns of its physical and human characteristics.  Geographers study how nature and culture work to create distinct spaces, places, landscapes, and regions.  Geography is a subject of practical importance in such fields as urban and regional planning, industrial location, marketing, resource development, environmental monitoring and management, and geomatics.  It is possible to obtain a major or honours in geography in either a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree program.

Departmental Policy

1.            The Department regards 1000-level courses as both service courses for the university in general and basic introductory courses for geography majors.

2.            Because program changes occur from time to time with renumbered or restructured courses, students are advised that they are not eligible to take a course for credit if they already have a credit for a comparable course, even if that course was taken at a different level or under a different number.

3.            Majors and honours students should normally complete GEOG 2306 and GEOG 2356 before the end of their second year or, in the case of part-time students, before proceeding to other upper level courses.

4.            All declared majors and honours students are assigned a faculty advisor with whom they should consult each year to review their progress and course selection.

5.            The Department of Geography and Environmental Studies recognizes the importance of developing student's communication skills in preparation for participating in the work force and/or continuing their education at an advanced level.  Therefore, in addition to addressing geographical content, the Department is committed to improving the written and oral communication skills of students in Geography courses by including evaluation of these communication skills in course work. The Department asks that, in written work submitted for grading, students follow the Style Guide for Geographers available through the Department web site or from the Department Secretary.

6.            Geography courses are divided into four groups:

Group A -human geography courses;
Group B -physical geography courses;
Group C -techniques or methods courses;
Group D -integrative courses which may combine aspects of human geography, physical geography or techniques.

 Depending on the degree program, Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, the required courses from each group vary.  The group to which each course belongs is shown beside each course’s title.


General Requirements for a Major

Geography is both a social science as well as a natural science.  Students may major in geography and obtain a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree.  In either case forty-eight (48) geography credit hours are required. Not only must students meet the geography requirements to qualify for a major in geography in either a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree, they must also meet individual Faculty requirements to qualify for the degree (see relevant sections of the Calendar).  Students in the Faculty of Arts must maintain a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 (an average grade of C) in courses used to meet the minimum credit requirements for the major.  Students in the Faculty of Science must obtain a minimum GPA of 2.2 in all of those courses used to satisy the major subject area. 

 Requirements for a Major in Bachelor of Arts Degree

Forty-eight (48) credit-hours

i.      GEOG 1100 and GEOG 1200;
ii.     GEOG 2306, GEOG 2356 and GEOG 2386;
iii.    Three (3) credit-hours from GEOG 3326, GEOG 3356, GEOG 3386 or GEOG 3416;
iv.    Nine (9) credit-hours in GEOG at the 4000-level; and
v.     Twenty-one (21) credit-hours in GEOG.

Note: In addition to the eighteen (18) credit hours defined in (i), (ii) and (iii), the thirty (30) additional credit hours in GEOG may be taken from any group (A, B, C, D).  After the student attains forty-eight (48) credit hours in GEOG, only Group A, C, and D courses count towards the Faculty of Arts regulation for Major and Honours students to complete “sixty-six (66) credit-hours in Arts subjects at the 2000-level or above” (Faculty of Arts Regulation 1a). Additional Group B courses could be taken as electives.

Requirements for a Major in Bachelor of Science Degree

Forty-Eight (48) credit-hours

i.      GEOG 1100 and GEOG 1200;
ii.     GEOG 2306GEOG 2356 and GEOG 2386;
iii.    Three (3) credit-hours from GEOG 3326GEOG 3356GEOG 3386 or GEOG 3416;
iv.     At least eighteen (18) other credit-hours from Group B courses, of which at least three (3) credit-hours must be at the 4000-level;
v.     Twelve (12) other credit-hours in GEOG; and
vi.    A total of nine (9) credit-hours must be at the 4000-level in GEOG Group B, C, or D.

Note:  After the student has attained the required forty-eight (48) credit hours in GEOG, any additional GEOG credits would be taken as free electives in the Faculty of Science.

 

Concentration in GEOG Requirements

 

Requirements for a Concentration in Bachelor of Arts Degree

Twenty-four (24) credit-hours

i.     GEOG 1100, GEOG 1200 and GEOG 2306
ii.    GEOG 2356 or GEOG 2386
iii.   Twelve (12) other credit-hours in GEOG.

Requirements for a Concentration in Bachelor of Science Degree

Thirty (30) credit-hours

i.     GEOG 1100GEOG 1200 and GEOG 2306
ii.    GEOG 2356 or GEOG 2386
iii.    Three (3) credit-hours from GEOG 2313, GEOG 2333 or GEOG 2343
iv.    Nine (9) credit-hours from Group B or C courses
v.     Six (6) other credit-hours in GEOG

Requirements for Geography Major in a Bachelor of Arts Degree with a Minor in Geology

1.            A Bachelor of Arts degree student may major in geography with a minor in geology by fulfilling the requirements for a minor as listed in the Geology section of the Academic Calendar.
2.            Students accepted into the Geology minor program will be allowed to count twenty-four (24) credit-hours in Geology towards their Arts degree requirements.


Honours Program

1.            Depending on whether the student is undertaking a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree, the regulations of the respective Faculty apply to admission, continuance and graduation from the honours program.
2.            To be admitted to the honours program, a student must have at least a B standing in geography courses and have obtained satisfactory grades in non-geography courses.  Possession of the minimum requirements does not establish the right of an applicant to be admitted, or readmitted, to the program.
3.            Each year students should seek advice on their program of courses from the Honours Program Coordinator.
4.            Students admitted to the program are responsible for finding a member of the Department to act as their Honours supervisor.
5.            Complete details regarding the Honours Thesis  are contained in Regulations for the Honours Thesis (Geography 4526) available from the Departmental secretary.
6.            Besides meeting the respective Faculty credit hours and grade level requirements, students must complete a total of seventy-two (72) credit hours in geography to qualify for graduation with honours. 

Requirements for Honours in a Bachelor of Arts Degree

Seventy-two (72) credit-hours

i.     GEOG 1100 and GEOG 1200
ii.    GEOG 2306, GEOG 2356 and GEOG 2386
iii.   GEOG 3326 or GEOG 3416
iv.   GEOG 3356 or GEOG 3386
v.    GEOG 3004 and GEOG 4406
vi.   GEOG 4526
vii.  Thirty-nine (39) other GEOG credit hours from any group of which at least six (6) credit hours must be at the 4000-level

Requirements for Honours in a Bachelor of Science Degree

Seventy-two (72) credit-hours

i.     GEOG 1100 and GEOG 1200
ii.    GEOG 2306GEOG 2356 and GEOG 2386
iii.   GEOG 3326 or GEOG 3416
iv.   GEOG 3356 or GEOG 3386
v.    Three (3) credit hours from Group B at the 4000 level
vi.   At least fifteen (15) other credit-hours from Group B courses
vii.   GEOG 3004 and GEOG 4406viii.  GEOG 4526
ix.    Three(3) credit hours in GEOG at the 4000 level
x.     Eighteen(18) other credit-hours in GEOG


Minor Program in Geography

Requirements for Minor in a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Commerce Degree

Twenty-four (24) credit-hours

i.     GEOG 1100GEOG 1200and GEOG 2306
ii.    GEOG 2356 or GEOG 2386
iii.   Twelve (12) other credit-hours in GEOG.

Requirements for Minor in Geography in a Bachelor of Environmental Studies Degree
Twenty-four (24) credit hours

  1. GEOG 1100 and 1200
  2. GEOG 2306, 2356  and 2386
  3. GEOG 3356 or GEOG 3386
  4. Six (6) other credit hours in GEOG, which may only be counted as approved B.E.S. electives or free electives in fulfillment of the B.E.S. degree requirements.

Requirements for Minor in a Bachelor of Science Degree

Thirty (30) credit-hours

i.     GEOG 1100GEOG 1200 and GEOG 2306
ii.    GEOG 2356 or GEOG 2386
iii.    Three (3) credit-hours from GEOG 2313GEOG 2333 or GEOG 2343
iv.    Nine (9) other credit hours from Group B or C course
v.     Six (6) other credit hours in GEOG

In addition to the programs cited above, information on graduate courses, may be found in the Graduate Academic Calendar.


 

Requirements for  Geology/Geography Combined Programs

Requirements for the Major and honours Geology/Geography Combined Programs are found in the Geology section of the calendar.


 

Requirements for a Double Major in Geography and a science other than Geology in a Bachelor of Science Degree.

Thirty-six (36) credit-hours:
i.      GEOG 1100 and GEOG 1200;
ii      GEOG 2306, GEOG 2356 and GEOG 2386;
iii     Three (3) credit-hours from GEOG 3326, GEOG 3356, GEOG 3386 or GEOG 3416;
iv.    Fifteen (15) other credit-hours from GEOG Group B courses, of which at least three (3) credit-hours must be at the 4000-level;
v.     Three (3) other credit-hours at the 4000 level in GEOG Group B, C or D.
vi.    A total of six (6) credit-hours must be at the 4000-level in GEOG Group B, C or D.
Note: After the student has attained the required thirty-six (36) credit hours in GEOG, any additional GEOG credits would be taken as free electives in the Faculty of Science


Bachelor of Environmental Studies (BES)

Program Mission

The Bachelor of Environmental Studies is a multidisciplinary degree program offered by the Faculty of Arts. It is designed to prepare students for work related to environmental issues – from natural resource management and protection, to sustainable economic planning and development for the protection and preservation of the environment.  The program includes geographical, cultural, sociopolitical, economic and ecological orientations to the environment. Studies in these fields provide a strong foundational understanding of natural processes and systems that make up the environment.  Students can focus their environmental interests through exposure to a broad spectrum of knowledge about the human experience and the natural world, and practice in identifying, analyzing and mitigating environmental problems from a human perspective.


Degree Requirements

The program is a 4-year (120-credit-hour) B.E.S.  It is comprised of 21 credit hours of required core foundation courses from the Faculties of Arts, Commerce and Science; 24 credit hours of core courses beyond the required foundation courses; 30 credit hours from thematic area choices; 12 credit hours from specified elective courses in both introductory and advanced-level natural sciences, environmental sciences, social sciences, and the humanities; and 33 credit hours of free electives.   At the 4000-level, the two required core capstone courses take an integrative and applied orientation to environmental policy and practice.  To graduate, students must achieve the University minimum requirement of a DGPA of at least 2.00.


Programme Structure

In selecting their courses, BES Students are advised to follow the yearly program structure outlines below as much as possible.  Students should also be aware of course prerequisites when choosing their courses. In the event that a stated prerequisite has not been earned, students must obtain instructor’s permission in order to enroll.

 Note: when choosing approved B.E.S. electives to meet the degree requirements specified below, students are not permitted to take more than two 1000-level courses from any one subject area (ENVS, GEOG, POLI, etc.).


Year 1 Foundation (30 credit hours):

Twenty-one (21) credit hours in core social and life sciences courses:

  • ENVS 1200    Environmental Challenges
  • GEOG 1100   Global Perspectives on Land and Life
  • GEOG 1200   People, Place and Environment
  • ECON 1201   Introduction to Economics: Micro
  • POLI 1201     Politics: Contemporary Issues
  • Six credit hours in electives chosen from Biology, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Geology, Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy and/or Computing Science

Three (3) credit-hours in communications courses chosen from:

  • GSCI 1300 Introduction to Science Communication
  • EDUC 1000 Introduction to University Education

Six (6) credit hours in humanities courses chosen from:

  • CLAS 1001    Ancient Civilizations of the Near East and Egypt
  • CLAS 1002    The Ancient Civilizations of Greece and Rome
  • ENGL 1205    Introduction to Literature
  • HIST 1201     Civilization in the West
  • HIST 1203     The Twentieth Century in Europe
  • HIST 1208     Global History: 1450 to the Present
  • PHIL 1200     Critical Thinking
  • RELS 1211     Introduction to Religious Experience

Year 2 (30 credit hours)

Year 2 (30 credit hours) expands the Year One Foundation: Fifteen credit hours of core courses for cultural geography and life sciences:

Fifteen credit hours of core courses for cultural geography and life sciences:

Six (6) credit-hours course in community development courses chosen from:

  • ANTH 1202   Introduction to Socio-Cultural Anthropology
  • IDST 2301     Introduction to International Development Studies: Perspectives
  • PSYC 1250    Social Behaviour
  • SOCI 1210     Introduction to Sociology
  • SOCI 1211     Social Power Relationships

Three(3) credit-hours in courses in environmental thought chosen from:

Three (3) credit-hours in policy courses chosen from:      

Three (3) credit hours in biogeography:

GEOG 2333   Biogeography

Year 3 (30 credit hours):

Three (3) credit-hours in environmental management:

Three (3) credit-hours in environmental sciences courses chosen from:

Three (3) credit-hours in economic development courses chosen from:

Three (3) credit-hours in research methods courses chosen from:

  • MATH 1216   Introduction to Mathematical Statistics
  • PSYC 2350    Psychological Statistics
  • SOCI 2100     Social Research Methods
  • GEOG 3326   Statistical Methods in Geography
  • GEOG 3416   Qualitative Research Methods in Geography

Six (6) credit-hours in courses in environmental thought and communications chosen from:

  • GSCI 3300    Advanced Science Communication
  • IDST 4470    Environment and Development
  • MGMT 3480 Ethical Responsibilities of Organizations
  • PHIL 3200    Environmental Aesthetics
  • GEOG 2356  Inquiry and Explanation in Geography
  • GEOG 3329  Geographic Perspectives on Nature

 Nine (9) credit-hours in approved B.E.S. electives at the 2000 level or above (see list below):

  • Three (3) credit-hours in an approved B.E.S. elective at the 2000 level or above from BIOL, CHEM or GEOL
  • Three (3) credit-hours in an approved B.E.S. elective at the 2000 level or above from CLAS, ENGL, HIST, PHIL or RELS (see below)
  • Three (3) additional credit-hours in an approved B.E.S. elective at the 2000 level or above
  • Three (3) credit-hours of free electives

 

Year 4 (30 credit hours)

Nine (9) credithours in core capstone courses:

Nine (9) credit-hours in approved B.E.S. electives at the 2000-level or higher

Twelve (12) credit-hours of free electives


List of Approved Courses for the B.E.S.

ANTH 1202   Introduction to Socio-Cultural Anthropology
ANTH 3366   Worldview: Anthropological Approaches [RELS 3366]
BIOL 1201     Molecular and Cell Biology
BIOL 1202     Organismal and Ecological Biology
BIOL 2303     Plant Biology
BIOL 2304     Animal Biology
BIOL 2324     Ecology
BIOL 3308     Biostatistics
BIOL 3332     Ecosystems
BIOL 4410     Plant Ecology
BIOL 4422     Conservation Biology
CHEM 1210   General Chemistry I
CHEM 1211/12     General Chemistry II for Physical/Life Sciences
CHEM 1221  Chemicals
CHEM 2373   Environmental Chemistry
CLAS 1001    Ancient Civilizations of the Near East and Egypt
CLAS 1002    The Ancient Civilizations of Greece and Rome
CLAS 3317    Greek Sanctuaries [RELS 3314]
CLAS 3610    Field Study in Roman Archeology
ECON 1201   Principles of Economics: Micro
ECON 1202   Principles of Economics: Macro
ECON 3362  Natural Resource Economics
ECON 3363   Environmental Economics
EDUC 1000   Introduction to University Education
ENGL 1205    Introduction to Literature
ENGL 2318    The Writer and Nature
ENGL 3518    Canadian Nature Writing
ENVS 1200    Environmental Challenges
ENVS 2100    Green Chemistry [CHEM 2100]
ENVS 2200    Introduction to Environmental Science
ENVS 3410    Environmental Impact Assessment [GEOL 3410]
ENVS 3420    Environmental Monitoring and Auditing
ENVS 3430    Environmental Information Management
ENVS 3440    The Environment and Human Health
ENVS 4440    Environmental Policy
ENVS 4450    Natural Resource Management [GEOG 4424]
ENVS 4460    Environmental Pattern Analysis and Modeling [GEOG 4444]
ENVS 4499    Environmental Seminar
GEOG 1100   Global Perspectives on Land and Life
GEOG 1200   People, Place and Environment
GEOG 2306   Geospatial Concepts
GEOG 2310   Geography of Canada
GEOG 2312   Urban Geography
GEOG 2313   Geomorphology [GEOL 2373]
GEOG 2315   The Oceans
GEOG 2325   Sedimentology [GEOL 2325]
GEOG 2332   Global Cities
GEOG 2333   Biogeography
GEOG 2341   Economic Geography
GEOG 2343   Weather and Climate
GEOG 2349   Cultural Geography
GEOG 2356   Inquiry and Explanation in Geography
GEOG 2386   Introduction to Mapping and Geographical Information Systems
GEOG 2390   Geography of Ireland [IRST 2391]
GEOG 3004   Geography Practicum
GEOG 3100   Geography Field School
GEOG 3213   Applied Geomorphology
GEOG 3302   The Built Environment
GEOG 3304   Environmental Management
GEOG 3311   Rural Geography
GEOG 3320   Geography of the North
GEOG 3321   Economic Globalization: Geography of Manufacturing
GEOG 3326   Statistical Methods in Geography
GEOG 3329  Geographic Perspectives on Nature
GEOG 3340   Geography of Nova Scotia [ACST 3340]
GEOG 3350   Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa
GEOG 3351   Demography and Migration
GEOG 3356   Remote Sensing of the Environment
GEOG 3380   Climate Change: Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation
GEOG 3386   Geographical Information Systems Analysis
GEOG 3416   Qualitative Research Methods in Geography
GEOG 3433   Fluvial Geomorphology
GEOG 3454  Bay of Fundy: Environments and Issues`
GEOG 3553   Arctic and Alpine Landscapes
GEOG 4406   Capstone Seminar in Geography
GEOG 4412   Urban History and Preservation
GEOG 4413   Coastal Geomorphology [GEOL 4476]
GEOG 4423   Glaciers and Glaciation [GEOL 4475]
GEOG 4431   Community and Regional Development
GEOG 4432   Social Geography of the City
GEOG 4434   Watershed Management
GEOG 4442   Urban Planning
GEOG 4443  Natural Hazards
GEOG 4449   Tourist Geographies
GEOG 4459   The Power of Maps: A Social History of Cartography
GEOG 4465   Advanced Sedimentology [GEOL 4465]
GEOG 4496   Applications in Geomatics
GEOL 1202    Planet Earth: Atlantic Canada Perspective
GEOL 1203    Earth History: Atlantic Canada Perspective
GEOL 1206    Global Change
GEOL 1207    Environment, Radiation and Society
GEOL 1208    Environmental Geology: Atlantic Canada Perspective
GEOL 2325    Sedimentology [GEOG 2325]
GSCI 1300     Introduction to Science Communication
GSCI 3300     Advanced Science Communication
HIST 1201     Civilization in the West
HIST 1203     The Twentieth Century in Europe
HIST 1208     Global History: 1450 to the Present
HIST 2201     Environmental History of Europe, 1300-1900
IDST 2301     Introduction to International Development Studies: Perspectives
IDST 2302     Introduction to International Development Studies: Policies and Practice
IDST 4470     Environment and Development
MGMT 3480  Ethical Responsibilities of Organizations
PHIL 1200     Critical Thinking
PHIL 2305     Environmental Ethics
PHIL 2318     Science and Society
PHIL 2331     Business Ethics
PHIL 3200     Environmental Aesthetics
PHYS 1370   Scientific Method [PHIL 1255]
POLI 1201     Politics: Contemporary Issus
POLI 1210     Political Ideas: “isms” and Beliefs
POLI 2307     Provincial Government and Politics
POLI 3321     International Organization
POLI 3245     Public Policy I
POLI 3246     Public Policy II
POLI 4493      Global Social Movements
PSYC 4418    Environmental Psychology
RELS 1211     Introduction to Religious Experience
RELS 2347     Ecology and Religion
RELS 3348     Religion and Ecological Issues in the Developing World [IDST 3348]
RELS 3349     Science and Religion
SOCI 1210     Introductory Sociology
SOCI 1211     Social Power Relations
SOCI 2100     Social Research Methods
SOCI 3408     Urban Sociology: Introduction and History
SOCI 3491     Rural Sociology